The process of Temple Fundraising and Activities

A recent event has prompted us to write this article with regards to temple fundraising in lieu of us having to progressively and repeatedly help answer a stream of enquiries from various parties.

What exactly does temple fundraising means? Generally, it may be defined as a process of which a temple initiates to solicit financial support to accomplish the temple’s specific objective. However, the definition aforementioned is very broad and general and does not explain much about specific processes, the roles of offices and individuals involved there-in-under as well as to the limitations of the entire processes per se. The essence of temple fundraising far transcends mere asking for money. It also reflects the ethical conduct of the particular temple and the ways it imparts religious knowledge and behaviour, how it builds and establishes relationships between the Sangha (monks) and devotees, brings in and retains foundation support as well as how it attracts new donors and followers. In other words, it is a reflection about the overall responsibility and accountability of the temple’s modus operandi. A seemingly simple temple fundraising process actually comprises a complicated web of sub-processes which, if not carried out properly, will open the floodgate to fraud and deception.

We have in the past twenty over years participated in various temple fundraising processes through assuming different roles and obligations within those processes. Each role has its specific set of duties and limitations. In this article, we will share our experiences in pertinence to the process of temple fundraising and hope you will find these information useful.

Financial Sources of Temple

Before we delve into the topic of temple fundraising, allow us to provide you with a general knowledge of the constituents of temple income in Thailand. Most of the temples derive income from the rental of property (temple land) and kiosks (shops and stalls within temple compound) and the sales of religious items such as flowers, incense, candles, offering products, and specifically sacred objects such as amulets and statues. The aforementioned channels of income constitute a temple’s long-term revenue which is usually used for general maintenance of the temple.

Technically, these activities are governed by Ministerial Regulation issued in accordance with the Sangha Act which gave birth to what became known as ‘temple committee’. Nonetheless, both laws do not specify the method of appointment or qualification as well as the authority and duties of office holders thereby indirectly conferring upon the abbot the discretionary power to appoint persons he deems appropriate. In this article, we will not be visiting the benefits and problems arising under such system but suffice to make our ground that an abbot has sole authority to fill the “temple committee” as he deems fit.

Purpose of Temple Fundraising

With a steady flow of income, temple fundraising must, therefore, be confined to the premise of specific purposes that require stipulated amount of money to accomplish, for examples, the restoration of 13th century Chedi in Wat Mahathat Woramahawihan, Nakhon Si Thammarat; the construction of Ubosot and Phra Phrom shrine in Wat Noak, Bangkok; the construction and extension of temple activity compound in Wat Bangplad, Nakhon Pathom and et cetera.

Under such circumstances, a temple will usually organise a range of activities to raise funds to accomplish the specific project. In the process of fundraising, a temple usually forms a network to reach out to potential donors. This network comprises individuals and groups assigned with specific tasks to help the temple accomplish its mission.

Roles and Duties of Individuals in a Fundraising Process

The network of individuals may be broadly categorised into five groups as follows:

(1) temple project committee;

(2) agents;

(3) distributors;

(4) dealers; and

(5) runners.

Temple Committee

Temple committee members formed for the purpose of a project may comprise ad hoc members specifically appointed for their competence for the purpose of fundraising with or without participation of temple’s standing committee. Project committee activities are case specific with objectives concentrating on overall project purposes and specific deliverables in soliciting funds and ensuring funds solicited are efficiently utilised on the said project. In other words, not only do temple project committee members work hand-in-hand with other relevant parties in related processes such as event organisers, advertisers, distributors, dealers and et cetera, they also have access to the books to ensure funds raised are not abused.

The project committee or its members neither solicit donation nor sell sacred objects. However, they may refer potential donors directly to the temple. The status of project committee members dies with the project.


Agents are directly appointed by the abbot and charged with the responsibility to reach out to a wider community by creating awareness of the temple’s ongoing project so as to gather contributions of money from individuals, businesses, and institutions. Their core duties, amongst other things, include providing donors with correct information, such as the temple’s name and address, the purpose of fundraising, total amount of donation solicited, the means for solicitation, potential dates for commencement and completion of project, arranging for donors to meet up with the abbot or project committee when authentication is being requested and et cetera.

Names and photographs of appointed agents are published in temple’s circulars, newsletters, magazines, brochures, official website or other platforms of communication to preclude impostors from deceiving unsuspecting donors and damaging the temple’s reputation. Agents are the only group among the six authorised to raise cash donation. However, official temple receipts must be issued for cash collected.

The status of agents either die with the project or upon termination by the abbot whichever earlier.


This role is usually fulfilled by prominent dealers in the amulet trade. The responsibility of distributors include stockpiling sacred objects specifically made and consecrated for the particular project and distributing them to willing amulet dealers without mark-ups. This is to ensure dealers are not price-disadvantaged. The list of appointed distributors is published by the temple in its brochures and other communication platforms.

The status of distributors expires when stock becomes unavailable.


Dealers are businesses seeking profit from the sales of sacred objects and are not directly associated to the temple. Unlike distributors, they are not constrained by temple pricing. Moreover, the advantage of dealers is that they provide a ready and diverse client-base that temples can tap into to raise funds.


Runners, sometimes also known as petty-dealers, are traditionally individuals who buy in small units either from dealers or direct from temples in the hope to make a profit by selling their purchases to relatives and friends. Currently, runners may also take aim at strangers through the Internet.

Donor’s Rights

A legal fundraising project must necessarily include donor’s rights. What are the donor rights? Of course, donors have many legal and moral rights to pursue, however, there are basically three more obvious and pertinent donor’s rights in relation to temple fundraising. Firstly, a donor has the right to voluntary donation based on true and sincere information with regards to the project. Secondly, a donor must be provided with the venue to seek verification and/or authentication that his donation has been duly received by the temple. Thirdly, a donor may request to witness the progress of a project or see the physical finished product(s) if the fund solicited pertains to specific objects such as statues, murals, and so on.

Thai Legend: Buddha of Wealth Luang Phor Sothorn

Buddhism is a major world religion founded in the 5th century BC based on the teachings of Lord Buddha Siddhartha Gautama. There are approximately 535 million Buddhists worldwide of which more than 100 million are Theravada Buddhists. Theravada Buddhism, also known as “doctrine of the elders”, is the oldest and purest form of Buddhism which preserved and practiced the teachings and traditions as was observed during Lord Buddha’s time and thereafter recorded in the Pali canons. Today, Theravada Buddhism is strongest in South Asia but is, currently, gaining grounds throughout Southeast Asia as well as western continent.Pursuant therefrom, it is not difficult to imagine the number of Buddhist temples around the world. In our earlier article “Phra Jaktukam Ramathep: a Frenzy Culture within and beyond Thailand” we mentioned that in the Kingdom of Thailand alone there are 40, 717 Theravada temples and, perhaps, the most in the world. Out of these 40,717 temples is a historical temple that was built during the late Ayutthaya Period on the bank of Bang Pakong River, Tambon Amphoe Mueang Chachoengsao, eastern Thailand. The history of this temple and the Buddha image that it houses are both filled with mystery and suspense.

An old and simple temple which housed the National Treasure, the image of Luang Phor Sothorn

Three Large Bronze Buddha Swimming in Bang Pakong River

More than three centuries ago, during the reign of King Narai the Great or Ramathibodi Si Samphet of the Siamese Ayutthaya Kingdom, three large bronze Buddha images were unbelievably discovered floating in Bang Pakong River by a fisherman. The fisherman quickly gathered the villagers to help bring the three large bronze Buddha images out from the water. However, all attempt failed. They even tied ropes to the images but the ropes snapped and the Buddha images kept flowing down the river. The villagers were filled with disappointment and grieve as they believed the village did not have sufficient merits to invite the three Buddha images to be enshrined in their village.Suddenly, water current increased and became turbulent. Two of the three images were swiped downstream whilst the third remained in the water. One of the two Buddha travelled another 79 kilometres and took up abode in Samut Prakan and became known as Luang Phor Toh Bang Phli whilst the other travelled 152 kilometres to Samut Songkhram and became known as Luang Phor Wat Ban Laem.

A Guru Monk Used a Chanting Thread and Invited the Buddha Image out from the River

A guru monk from Wat Hong was summoned to help invite the remaining Buddha to reside in the village. Joss-sticks, flowers, and other offerings were made during the ritual and the villagers were surprised when the guru monk asked them to bring a “saisin” (Thai chanting thread) out to the Buddha image and tie it around the Buddha. Even a thick rope had snapped and what good can a “saisin” do, the villagers thought. Nonetheless, they did as they were told. The monk then sat by the river bank and began chanting. To the surprise of the villagers, the Buddha image began flowing towards the river bank as the monk chanted.The large bronze Buddha image lap-wide 1.65 meters and height 1.48 meters was lifted off the water and His features were so different from other Buddha images during or before the Ayutthaya Period. Luang Phor Sothorn’s face is a full moon with a peaceful smile. The image of Luang Phor Sothorn was invited to be enshrined in Wat Hong which was subsequently renamed Wat Sothorn Woraram Woravihan. Do not be surprised that the Buddha image you pay homage to in Wat Sothorn Woraram Woravihan today is much larger than the measurements provided herein because the original image has been concealed in a coat of stucco to prevent sinners from stealing the image during the time when the Buddha was first enshrined in Wat Hong. Since then, the original image has remained concealed hitherto.

Believers praying to Luang Phor Sothorn and asking for help

The Mascot of Chachoengsao

After Luang Phor Sothorn was enshrined in Wat Hong, the province of Chachoengsao which was originally a sparsely populated fishing village began to prosper and develop. Traders gradually brought their transactions to the village and more businesses were also set up there. Those who pay homage to Luang Phor Sothorn saw their businesses prospered and, thus, for centuries, Luang Phor Sothorn has been Thailand’s most prominent Buddha of Wealth.During the Ayutthaya Period, medical facilities were almost primitive and people usually resort to faith healing. Diseases, sickness, and outbreak of epidemic are just too often during those days. The people of Chachoengsao, and subsequently included people from other provinces, turned to Luang Phor Sothorn for help. The incense and flowers used as offerings were used as medicines. They were either boiled and consumed or used in bath to ward away sickness. Many miracles had taken place, especially the cure of epidemic in the year 2433, have strengthened the people’s faith in Luang Phor Sothorn who not only became the guardian but also the mascot of Chachoengsao.

Sacred objects made and consecrated by Wat Sothorn are made available to public.

The Two Main Effects that Touched the Hearts of Millions

The two main effects granted by Luang Phor Sothorn are wealth and good health. As news about the effects of Luang Phor Sothorn spread, many people from all over Thailand travelled by rafts through the Bang Pakong River to Wat Sothorn. Consequently, the number of people who decided to settle down in Chachoengsao also increased and the population inevitably bloomed. Perhaps, it was for that particular reason that some people today also think and speculate that, apart from the two primary effects, Luang Phor Sothorn is also “fertility” Buddha.

Reverence of Luang Phor Sothorn as the Buddha of wealth and healing has persisted to this day. Millions of businessmen and believers from all over the world have deliberately travelled to the Chacherngsao province every year to worship Luang Phor Sothorn resulting in Wat Sothorn Woraram Woravihan becoming Thailand’s richest temple. Phra Buddha Sothorn or simply Luang Phor Sothorn has become the main prosperity Buddha in the Kingdom of Thailand.

The Wish of His Majesty King Bhumibol Aduyadej

In 1966, His Majesty King Bhumibol Aduyadej has made a wish that the most revered Buddha image of Luang Phor Sothorn will one day be enshrined in a magnificent temple. The temple administrators have since set their minds in fulfilling the wish of His Majesty and, finally, in the year 1992, Wat Sothorn Woraram Woravihan underwent a 15 year-long reconstruction which was completed in the year 2006.

A majestically magnificent white monastery decorated with gold

The new temple took on a unique architectural outlook comprising traditional Thai architectural characteristics and contemporary flavour with Italian carrara marble tiles and gold plated ceramics. The current temple occupies an area of 5496 meter square, excluding other surrounding temple facilities.

External compound include a garden and a Chinese shrine

At the centre of the “Vihan”, or the assembly hall, is a square structure with four arches erected into an eight-level pyramidal roof of 85m in height with five 4.9m high golden royal umbrella weighing 77kg. It was estimated that the entire reconstruction project cost more than 2.04 billion baht in total.

Wat Sothorn’s Chinese Shrine

In August 30, 2006, Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn officiated the opening ceremony of the newly constructed Wat Sothorn Wararam Worawiharn in Chachoengsao for and on behalf of His Majesty the King Bhumibol Aduyadej. The new temple is considered the most beautiful and largest Theravada Buddhist temple in the world.

Luang Phor Sothorn and other Buddha images housed in an unconventional open and spacious style

Luang Phor Sothorn Amulets are as Expensive as Phra Somdej Amulets

Luang Phor Sothorn bronze statue bearing the King’s insignia

Because of the effects, amulets and images of Luang Phor Sothorn are highly sought after. To cater for the varying masses, some of these amulets and images are pricey while others are moderately priced. Those that were made a century or so ago are without saying exquisite and expensive for both effects and antique value and their prices easily fetch from a few hundred thousand baht to tens of millions baht. The highest recorded price of Luang Phor Sothorn amulet is 30 million baht for a 2460 medallion. Fake copies are selling over the Internet for a meagre amount of few hundred baht to as much as half-a-million baht. Other moulds commemorating special occasions or made from special materials may also be costly.

Luang Phor Sothorn 2460 extracted from Collection Book

Even those amulets and images slightly above half-a-century old are placed on the high-end of the scale.

Images and amulets bearing the royal insignia are also priced higher than normal moulds.

Luang Phor Sothorn 2509

There are two batches of roof tile images and amulets released in the Buddhist calendar years 2530 and 2534. The former were made from old roof tiles dismantled from Wat Sothorn Wararam Worawiharn that was believed to contained strong energies due to years of chanting by guru monks in the temple. This batch was made available to soldiers only.

Luang Phor Sothorn 2534 Roof Tile

The latter were made from a mixture of old and new roof tiles. They were moderately priced and made available to the public. In the Buddhist calendar year 2534 batch include images and amulets made from shredded bank notes provided by the Bank of Thailand signifying wealth and prosperity. Simultaneously, there were also those made from Gomphrena globosa linn flowers signifying good health.

Luang Phor Sothorn 2534 Roof Tile

In Thailand there is a sally saying “you are not a Thai Buddhist if you do not rent a Luang Phor Sothorn image or amulet”. From the sally it can be known the importance of Luang Phor Sothorn to Thai Buddhism. Luang Phor Sothorn is not only an important Buddha but He is also one of the three main Thai Buddhas of Wealth. Thais throughout the Kingdom of Thailand revered Luang Phor Sothorn and so do many people from around the world. If you think we have exaggerated the prominence of Luang Phor Sothorn please feel free to consult any Thai about this Buddha and verify our content for yourself. Finally, if you are keen to know who are the other two Thai Buddhas of Wealth, please keep a watch out for our articles.


佛教是公元前5世紀基於佛陀悉達多喬達摩的教義所建立的主要世界宗教, 全世界約有5.35億佛教徒,其中超過1億是上座部佛教徒。上座部佛教,也被稱為“長老教義”,是佛教中最古老,最純粹的形式,保存和實踐了佛陀時代的教義和傳統。這些古老的教義和傳統皆很詳細的被記錄在巴利教規中。現今,上座部佛教在南亞最為強大,同時也漸漸在整個東南亞甚至歐洲西部大陸都佔有一席之地。

由佛教遍布世界各地看來,佛教寺廟數量便不想可知。在我們早期的文章“帕澤渡金拉瑪帖: 泰國境內外的狂熱文化”我們曾提到僅在泰國王國就有40,717座上座部佛教寺廟,或許, 也是世界上最多上座部佛教寺廟的國家。在這40,717座上座部佛教寺廟中更包括一座歷史悠久的寺廟,一座大城府年代晚期建於泰國東部北柳府的西部曼芭空河岸邊的古廟佛寺。這座寺廟的歷史和它所供奉的主佛像都充滿了神秘和懸念。





繩索拉斷而不動 聖僧卻一線恭請佛上岸


該金銅佛像寬1.65米,高1.48米,經高僧一番誦經恭請,盡然隨著高僧收回的“賽新” “漂”到岸邊,再經村民輕輕一撈,便輕而易舉的將佛像搬上岸來。鑾波梭通佛祖的特徵與其他佛像的特徵截然不同,祂臉如滿月且嘴角更帶著平靜微笑,這種神態的佛像在暹羅大城王國年代或之前根本不成有過。鑾波梭通佛祖被入住瓦鴻佛寺受供奉,後來瓦鴻佛寺也因而改名為瓦梭通沃拉蘭沃拉維漢佛寺。不要感到驚訝,今天在瓦梭通沃拉蘭沃拉維漢佛寺大殿受供奉的佛像尺寸比以上所述要大得多,原因是原本的鑾波梭通佛祖的佛像,為防備盜竊,從在瓦鴻佛寺受供奉時便已在佛像外多加了一層水泥,把原有的佛像隱藏在其中。






















以下是台灣中天新聞的一篇報導,而據該報導,香港影星張柏芝以60萬新台幣買下了一枚帕順德古佛牌,該佛牌為她的職業生涯帶來了巨大好運。然而, 新聞主播劉英秀聲明,根據他們的泰國佛牌專家宣稱,帕順德古佛牌並沒張柏芝所付的那種價值。陳師父針對此一報告提供了徹底的回應,揭露了台灣新聞報導背後的劣質文化…..










上述是市價新台幣40萬的帕順護身佛牌照片。這麼多年來,本行經手新台幣30萬以上的帕 順德 護身佛牌和其他的佛牌已不計其數,包括但不限於出自瓦拉康佛寺,瓦麥阿瑪大羅佛寺,瓦杰差喲佛寺,瓦比昆銅佛寺,瓦納唐諾佛寺等等的高端文物。所以,本行覺得來自中天新聞和他們“專家”的意見非常有趣,便冒昧地在此和我們尊貴顧客分享,搏君一笑!價格超過新台幣60萬以上的佛牌也太尋常啦,買幾本泰國佛牌收藏書籍看看便可把泰國佛牌領域的知識升級喲!

Was Hong Kong movie star Cecilia Cheung being made a Sucker or has the Ill-Informed Critic Croaked?

In the following clip by Zhongtian News, Taiwan, it was reported that Hong Kong movie star Cecilia Cheung rented an antique Phra Somdej amulet for NT600, 000 and which had brought Cecilia Cheung tremendous career luck. However, according to the news anchor, an expert in Thai amulets pronounced that an antique Phra Somdej amulet does not command that kind of value Cecilia Cheung had paid for. Master Tan provided a thorough response and exposed the shoddy culture behind Taiwan’s news reporting…

Generally, an informed critic is a person who possesses profound knowledge in a specific field albeit not necessarily having to be a specialist in the said field but suffice that he is able to assess, evaluate, and communicate an objectively informed opinion or critique about a subject matter, for example, social or government policy. Do take note that I stipulated “profound knowledge” and not “specialized knowledge” although the latter may be preferable otherwise any opinion delivered stands the risk of being ill-informed and stupid if not misleading. These minimum criterions for criticism are necessary to invoke a judicious application of the mental faculty through examination of sensation by deliberation which in turn allow for a distinction to be drawn between a critique and a rant.

Pursuant to the afore-mentioned, there are inevitably many “critics” who adopt title inflation in order to justify their criticism as informed opinions. For example, here in Taiwan, there is a profuse and loose use of the term “師” which literally means a “master”, “teacher’, or “expert” and it is not surprising to hear plumbers, tilers, cooks, and et cetera being addressed as “師”. With as much looseness as the use of the term “師” there is also a liberal use of the term “評論家” or critic which is why we are seeing abundant commentary programs and commentary news (評論節目) here that is of entertaining quality more than knowledgeable deliberation. Inevitably, we too are seeing such title inflation and ill-informed commentary taking a toll on Thai Buddhism here.

The above is a Taiwan news clip by Zhongtian News on a Phra Buddha Somdej amulet rented for NT600, 000 by Hong Kong movie star Cecilia Cheung. It was reported that that Somdej amulet had brought Cecilia Cheung tremendous career luck. In the course of the broadcasting, an expert in Thai Buddhism was also introduced.

It was claimed therein that the particular Somdej amulet rented by Cecilia Cheung is 140 over years of age thereby implying it is possibly the last batch of Phra Buddha Somdej amulet made and consecrated by His Venerable Somdej Phra Buddhachantoh Promarangsi. However, the news reader Liu Yingxiu made a closing statement with a claim that according to expert an antique Somdej amulet does not worth that much of money.

His Venerable Somdej Phra Buddhachantoh Promaragsi

What is the relevance of us sharing this piece of “news” here? Well, it is a general knowledge of Thai Buddhists and Thai amulet collectors that a genuine Somdej amulet made by Somdej Phra Buddhachantoh Promaragsi easily fetch a market price of more than a million baht which is equivalent to more than NT920, 000 and amulets with a price tag of NT500, 000 are just too common. Therefore, that piece of “news” not only highlights the abuse of title inflation, it also underscores the essence of fake news.

NT1.4 million Somdet amulets

The above are photographs taken by our Mr David Tan on 5th June 2013 in Wat Kiat Chayeo which he immediately uploaded to our Facebook and shared them with our valued customers. The asking prices of those Somdej amulets were explicitly shown in the photograph and it was 1.5 million Baht each which is approximately equivalent to NT1.4 million. It was a rare opportunity to catch a glimpse of a genuine antique Somdej amulet of that category and above.

Somdej LP Chung

To-date, we have rented out numerous high-ends Somdej amulets from prominent temples including but not limiting to Wat Rahkang, Wat Mai Amatarot, Wat Kiat Chayeo, Wat Pitkulthong, Wat Natangnok, and et cetera with prices costing more than NT300, 000 – NT500, 000. The piece of news from Zhongtian News and their expert’s opinion is so funny that we took the liberty to share it here just for a laugh! So what do you think? Feel free to express your opinion here.



在我們之前的文章“帕泽渡金拉玛帖: 泰國境內外的狂熱文化”中,我們類別分明地通過圍繞着神明的眾多故事來區分事實和虛假以便幫助我們的讀者將事實與他們的信仰相關聯以確定辨認帕泽渡金拉玛帖究竟是那尊神明。因此,憑藉考古證據,毗濕奴普拉納經文記錄和歷史驗證,我們都得到一個堅定的結論,那就是帕泽渡金拉玛帖實際上是印度教毗濕奴大天王,是印度教三尊至高無上的神之一。 所以,在本文中,我們將交叉參考帕泽渡金拉玛帖與毗濕奴大天王的神聖能力,使信徒能夠更深入了解他們的信仰。


正如在市場所常見的那樣,帕泽渡金拉玛帖的護身符,佛牌和雕像都是用不同的材料製作而且款式眾多,因此,對於該神袛沒有深入了解的人來說,這可能會造成很大的困惑。 然而,如果信徒有足夠的觀察力,傳統的護身符,佛牌和帕泽渡金拉玛帖的雕像既包含該神袛本身的神象之外,通常也會包含以下一個或多個像徵性圖像,如納迦,太陽和月亮,以及帕拉壺(天狗)。 護身符和佛牌後側的設計有更大的靈活性,它可以雕有寺廟標誌,佛塔,高德即高僧形象等等圖案形象。


瓦諾佛寺, 帕泽渡金


神像的主要效果,而其他像徵性圖像且具有次要效果。 因此,佛牌經銷商有責任教育他們的顧客,並仔細地將後者的需求與護身符和佛牌的主要和次要效果影響相匹配好。對於本文的其餘部分,除了闡明帕澤渡金拉瑪帖的神聖能力之外,我們還將為讀者解釋帕澤渡金拉瑪帖與那些象徵性圖像(如納迦,太陽和月亮,帕拉壺)之間的聯繫是如何發生的以及後者的次要效果影響 是麼。

瓦普泰薩灣佛寺, 帕泽渡金

以上顯示的五頭納迦帕澤渡金拉瑪帖的神像起源於大城府地區泰國歷史悠久的寺廟之一瓦普泰薩灣佛寺。在帕澤渡金拉瑪帖熱期間價錢曾一度上漲到10萬泰銖的市值。 今天,源于瓦普泰薩灣佛寺的帕澤渡金拉瑪帖神聖物仍然是備受追捧的,導致市面上出現很多仿造的假護身符,佛牌和神像。

除了神聖物的價格外,這尊神像的獨特之處是伴著帕澤渡金拉瑪帖那條五頭納迦。五頭納迦被稱為阿迪世薩,是所有納迦之王。我們不會在本文 中深入研究阿迪世薩的來源,但足以說明的是它的五個頭代表支持宇宙的五大支柱併且阿迪世薩是毘濕奴大天王的同伴。依據印度教經文記載,阿迪世薩是生命 和連續性的保護者。因此,當帕澤渡金拉瑪帖與納迦出現時,實際上便便毘濕奴大天王與他的同伴阿迪世薩一起出現,這意味著為他的信徒提供保護。

瓦瑪哈塔沃拉瑪哈維漢, 帕泽渡金







還記得,在我們之前的文章“帕澤渡金拉瑪帖:泰國境內外的狂熱文化”中,我們在子標題“神聖物體與信徒之間的聯繫”裡聲稱“對泰國佛教的信仰遠遠超越了僅僅相信的主要先決條件,並且需要一個連接過去,現在和未來的清晰描述。同樣的理論也適用於連接信徒和神聖物體的信仰。信徒需要知道神聖物體的起源(過去),干預情境 的能力(現在),以及帶來期望結果(未來)。”嗎?眾所周知,帕澤渡金拉瑪帖是尊財神,常賜予祂的信徒金錢和財富,因此,我們需要知道祂財源的來歷。

要回答這個問題,我們實際上又必須再次回到關於翻騰牛奶海洋的印度教典故中。從牛奶海洋生出的各種寶物恰好有一尊金錢和財富女神拉施密,而金錢和財富女神拉施偏偏 選擇了毘濕濕大天王為她的配偶。因此,無限的金錢和財富在邏輯上該是來自金錢和財富女神拉施密。


Phra Jaktukam Ramathep: Lord Vishnu

In our previous article “Phra Jaktukam Ramathep: A Frenzy Culture Within and Beyond Thailand” we categorically helped our readers to correlate facts to their beliefs in identifying who Phra Jakukam Ramathep really is by first distinguishing between facts and falsehoods amongst the numerous stories surrounding the Deity. Consequently, we all came to a firm conclusion by virtue of archaeological evidence, puranic records, and historical verifications that Phra Jaktukam Ramathep is in fact one of Hindu’s supreme God Lord Vishnu. Therefore, in this article, we are going to cross reference the godly abilities of Phra Jaktukam Ramathep with that of Lord Vishnu to enable believers to have a better understanding of their belief.

The Iconic Images of Phra Jaktukam Ramathep
As evidenced in the market, amulets, pendants, and images of Phra Jaktukam Ramathep are made with different materials and come in numerous styles that can prove really confusing to those who do not possess an in-depth understanding about the Deity. However, if believers are observant enough, traditional amulets, pendants, and images of Phra Jaktukam Ramathep contains either an image of the Deity Himself or together with one or more of the following emblematic images such as nagas, sun and moon, and Phra Rahu. More flexibility is accorded only to the rear side of amulets and pendants which may include talismans, images of chedi, Luang Phors, Phra Pidta and et cetera.


Wat Noak, Jaktukam 2 dragons (2nd batch)

However, it has to be emphasised from the outset that these emblematic images are not designs out of whims and fancy but are rooted in puranic records. Each emblematic image that appears with Phra Jaktukam Ramathep is representational of a specific or a series of specific purposes of which can be explained and traced back to puranic records. Therefore, if any emblemtic design accompanying Phra Jaktukam Ramathep that is not traceable and explained in the Puranas, then the origin of those amulets, pendants, and images become fundamentally questionable.

Wat Noak, Jatukam, 1st Batch

Pursuant to the aforementioned, Phra Jaktukam Ramathep and His abilities is the principal effect of His amulets, pendants, and images whilst other emblematic figures possess secondary effects. Therefore, it is the responsibility of amulet dealers to educate their customers and carefully match the latter’s needs with both the principal and secondary effects of amulets and pendants.

For the rest of this article, besides elucidating the capabilities of Phra Jaktukam Ramathep, we are also going to explain how associations between Phra Jaktukam Ramathep and those emblematic images such as nagas, sun and moon, and Phra Rahu occur and what their secondary effects thereof are.

Wat Phutthaisawan – Jaktukam

The above amulet originated from one of Thailand’s historical temple Wat Phutthaisawan in Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya district and has once rose to the market value of 100,000 baht during the Jaktukam fever. Today, it remains one of the highly sought after amulets which resulted in many imitations.

Price of the amulet aside, the unique feature here is Phra Jaktukam Ramathep has a five-headed naga acting as His sunshade. The five-headed naga is called Adishesha, the King of all nagas. We will not be delving into the story of Adishesha in this article but suffice to state herein that its five heads represent the five pillars or directions of the universe which it supports and that Adishesha is Lord Visnu’s companion. Adishesha is the protector of life and continuity. Therefore, when Phra Jaktukam Ramathep appears with his naga companion, it is actually Lord Vishnu with his companion Adishesha and it means offering protection to His believers.

Wat Phra Mahathat Voramaha Vihara, Jaktukam

Amulets and pendants featuring Phra Jaktukam Ramathep with the sun, moon, and Phra Rahu may be traced back to the Hindu mythology pertaining to the Churning of the Ocean of Milk as per the Vishnu Purana. This is yet another long and complicated story which is beyond the scope of this article. However, to help our readers correlate the significance of the various emblematic figures we shall provide a brief summary on the Churning of the Ocean of Milk.

Churning of the Ocean of Milk

The Devas, under the curse of sage Durvasas, were losing their powers and needed the amrita in the deep ocean to recover. However, the Devas were already too weak to churn the ocean of milk by themselves and, hence, they tricked the Asuras into helping them by promising the latter a share of the amrita. Nonetheless, after retrieving the amrita, Lord Vishnu transformed into an attractive and captivating damsel to distract and trick the Asuras of their share of the amrita whilst the Devas drank theirs. Only one Asura, that is Rahu, saw through Lord Vishnu’s trick and disguised himself as a Deva to drink the amrita. Nevertheless, Rahu was discovered by Sun God Surya and the Moon God Chandra who exposed Rahu to Lord Vishnu. Just before the amrita took full effect, Lord Vishnu cut Rahu into half but, because of the effect of the amrita, Rahu’s upper body remained immortal. Consequently, Rahu vowed revenge against the Sun and Moon Gods and attempted to swallow them whenever he has the opportunity (the Hindu’s rationale behind eclipse). Nevertheless, the Sun and Moon pass through his belly and end the eclipse. Therefore, when Phra Jaktukam Ramathep amulets and pendants come with the Sun, Moon, and Rahu, it signifies that Phra Jaktukam Ramathep will help His believers to remain unharmed.

With this explanation and association amongst the various emblematic figures, we believe readers are now in an even better position to understand the actual relationship between Phra Jaktukam Ramathep and Lord Vishnu. If we are to believe any of those flawed speculations such as the four guardians of the city, or King Chandra Banu or Lord Sri Srinagarang, also known as “Black King of the South Sea” and the second of the Srivijaya Throne or Avalokiteshvara Bodisattva or anything along this line of propagation then we will equally not be able to explain and categorically elucidate the association and relationship amongst each of those emblematic figures as we have done above.

As regards how an Asuras like Rahu from the nether world is able to gain His own worshippers and help dispel “small people” like backstabbers, gossipers, and et cetera will be fully elaborated and explained in one of our upcoming articles on Phra Rahu.

Where does Phra Jaktukam Ramathep Gets Money to Give Believers?

Remember in our previous article “Phra Jaktukam Ramathep: A Frenzy Culture Within and Beyond Thailand” under the sub-header “The Connection between Sacred Objects and Believers” we postulated that “Faith in Thai Buddhism far transcend the primary prerequisite of mere believe and necessitate a clear description connecting past, present, and future. The same theory applies to the faith connecting believers and sacred objects. Believers need to know the origin (past) of the sacred object, its ability to intervene in a situation (present), and bringing about a desire outcome (future)”? As we all know, Phra Jaktukam Ramathep is known to bestow wealth and fortune on His believers and, consequential thereof, we need to know where lays the means to that end.

To answer this question, we would actually have to return to the Hindu mythology on the Churning of the Ocean of Milk again. Amongst the various Treasures that were churned out from the Ocean of Milk was the Goddess of Wealth and Fortune, Lakshmi, who chose Lord Vishnu as Her consort. The unlimited wealth and fortune is logically from Goddess Lashmi and bestowed on believers in the name of Phra Jaktukam Ramathep.

As we have promised in our earlier article we will not be joining the crowd to just plug information from the thin air when we come to describe Phra Jaktukam Ramathep’s devine abilities and we will provide readers with a cross reference pertaining to each of the afore-stated abilities of Phra Jaktukam Ramathep with that of Lord Vishnu’s to help our readers make senses out of their belief, we believe we had done nothing short of our promises in this article and we earnestly hope you enjoyed it.

Phra Jaktukam Ramathep: A Frenzy throughout Asia


Phra Jaktukam Ramathep, a God of Wealth in Thailand and Southeast Asia, has driven billions of dollars in transactions within Thai amulet market, and so many legends have emerged in pertinence thereto. Some people say that He is the two Siamese princes respectively named Jaktukam and Ramathep. Some people claim that He is the four guardian Gods of the city of Nakhon Si Thammarat, whilst some people speculate that He is either King Chandrabunu Lord Sri Srinagarang, also known as “Black King of the South Sea” and second to the Srivijaya Throne. Yet there are alsopeople who think He is the manifestation of Avalokiteshvara Bodisattva and so on. In these many legends, which is true or who exactly is Phra Jaktukam Ramathep?

The frenzy…

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帕泽渡金拉玛帖: 泰國境內外的狂熱文化




Thai Theravada Ordination Ceremony


The Thai Theravada ordination ceremony is not only an intriguing event but also a complex tradition that was created by Lord Buddha which constitute original Buddhism today. For two-thousand-five-hundred and sixty over years, the meanings of each and every ritual involved in the ceremony have been zealously guarded and preserved. The Thai Theravada ordination ceremony not only forms the crux of Thai society but also serve as the essence of recognition for Thai Buddhist amulet dealers throughout the world.

Many owners of Thai amulet shops…

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